Flora and Fauna

There are 25 “active zones” of biological diversity in the world. One of them is Georgia. In the country there is an endemic fauna and species characteristic of the countries of Europe, and Central and Minor Asia. Class of mammals in Georgia has 109 species. Field their habitat is vertically divided from the sea to the alpine zone. For the ecosystems of alpine and subalpine zones mammals such as bezoar ibex, east Caucasian tur, west Caucasian tur and chamois are common. In the mountain and forest part of Georgia live species such as the brown bear, lynx, wolf, deer and wild boar. Also in forests large mammals can be found, jackal, gazelle and hyena. In 2001, the Georgian zoologists discovered Caucasian leopard. Marine mammals in Georgia are represented by two types of Dolphin. Georgia fauna is rich and diverse with birds. There are 360 ​​species of them, both local and migratory. Rocky cliffs and gorges of the Greater Caucasus are the perfect places for birds such as the golden eagle, griffon vulture, bearded vulture, tawny owl and Caucasian snowcoc. In the mountain forests and foothills nest lesser spotted eagle, hoopoe, Caucasian grouse, the great spotted woodpecker. Below, in the forests, swamps and fields live, pheasant, heron, francolin, bustards and many other birds. Class of reptiles – turtles, lizards, snakes – includes 48 species and the vast majority of them are harmless. In numerous rivers and lakes nearly 160 species of freshwater fish can be found.

The richness and diversity of Georgian flora is determined by the diversity of physical and geographical factors. In a small area of the country several vertically expressed vegetation zones are presented, which vary from subtropical to alpine and semi-desert zones. In Georgia, there are about 13,300 species of plants, and the area covered by forest is 38.6% (27 million. Ha) of the total area of the country. Colchis Lowland in Western Georgia is represented by swampy forests and low vegetation, gradually passing by the foothills into subtropical forests (hornbeam, beech, chestnut) with evergreen understory. Lowlands of eastern Georgia and the South Georgian Highlands are represented by steppe grasslands with elements of low vegetation, passing in hornbeam-oak forests. Middle mountainous strip of Eastern and Western Georgia within 1000 m. above sea level is covered with beech and beech-fir forests, the latter changes into coniferous forests in the Western part of the country. Alpine ridges and valleys of Georgia are covered with subalpine and alpine meadows and rhododendron Caucasicum.